RACHEL CARSON

RACHEL CARSON

SPACESHIP EARTH

"We travel together, passengers on a little spaceship, dependent upon its vulnerable reserves of air and soil, all committed for our safety to its security and peace; preserved from annihilation only by the care, the work, and, I will say, the love we give our fragile craft. We cannot maintain it half fortunate, half miserable, half confident, half despairing, half slave to the ancient enemies of man, half free in a liberation of resources undreamed of until this day. No craft, no crew can travel safely with such vast contradictions. On their resolution depends the survival of us all."

ADLAI STEVENSON, 1964

Wednesday, September 12, 2012

THE ABIOTIC ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM: FUELING THE NIGHTMARE OF INDISCRIMINATE DRIVING


 PETROLEUM IS NOT A 'FOSSIL FUEL'...
BUT ORIGINATES FROM DEEP ON-GOING GEO-CHEMISTRY 
and/or from ANCIENT EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL SOURCES LIKE COMETS


"IF WE DIG PRECIOUS THINGS FROM THE LAND, WE WILL INVITE DISASTER"  Hopi Prophecy

NOTE FROM JEFF: 'Abiotic' means 'not having to do with living organisms.'  Conventional 'wisdom' and mainstream science tell us that hydro-carbon compounds like petroleum are the result of fossilized organic matter from prehistoric plants and animals having been subjected to aeons of high pressure and temperature.  Implicit in this belief is the finite amount of these substances present on our planet.

Massive solid evidence exists, however, for the 'abiotic' origin of petroleum, whereby these compounds arrived on Earth from extra-terrestrial sources, possibly comets (Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision), and were...and still are...being created by chemical and geological processes ongoing deep in the Earth's mantle.

The implication is that abiotic petroleum is unlimited in supply;  geophysical exploration techniques probing deeper and deeper into the Earth are finding oil at depths previously thought to be impossible.

The constant replenishment of deep petroleum deposits represents a worst-case scenario for the future of life as we know her:  rather than eventually 'running out', after who knows how many 'wars of aggression' have been under-taken to secure resource control for the dominant hegemones, we are faced with an unending supply of planetary blood feeding the vampire of military-industrial civilization.

With an unlimited 'food' supply, the cancer of technegenous 'civilization' will continue to spread over the surface of the Earth, destroying all life in its path and assimilating the remnants into a 'powaqatsi' nightmare of machines and synthetic 'life' forms.

The only possible hope we have is for large numbers of people voluntarily to stop consuming hydro-carbon fuels, primarily through the light-years of unnecessary driving that 'modern man' performs without question.

Most people are unaware that a large portion of the whole field of organic chemistry, which has provided us with the most toxic and mutagenic substances known to exist other than synthetic radio-nuclides, was born from the discovery of petroleum.

Petroleum and all its constituents and derivatives are highly toxic to biological life.




Fossils From Animals And Plants Are Not Necessary For Crude Oil And Natural Gas, Swedish Researchers Find

What would happen if it were proven that "fossil fuels" weren't the result of decayingplant and animal matter, were actually created within the Earth due to simple chemistry and you could not be scared into believing that we were "running out" of oil and natural gas?

Estimates of how much crude oil we have extracted from the planet vary wildly. As late as May of 2009 a report published in the International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology suggested that we may have used more than we think.

The idea that we are running out of oil is not a new one. Scientists have told us that oil is a limited resource which was formed millions of years ago by the decaying vegetation and biomass of extinct species of plants and animals. With an estimated 1- trillion barrels of oil already extracted from deep wells since commercial drilling began around 1870, many predict that we are nearing the mid-point of remaining oil on the planet.
But there have always been those who claim that oil is a natural substance that forms automatically in the Earth's mantle. They say that it is virtually everywhere, if you can drill deep enough to tap it.

Proponents of so-called "abiotic oil" claim that the proof is found in the fact that many capped wells, which were formerly dry of oil, are found to be plentiful again after many years, They claim that the replenished oil is manufactured by natural forces in the Earth's mantle.

Critics of the abiotic theory disagree. They claim that capped wells may appear to refill after a few years, but they are not regenerating. It is simply an effect of oil slowly migrating through pore spaces from areas of high pressure to the low-pressure area of the drill hole. If this oil is drawn out, it will take even longer for the hole to refill again. They hold that oil is a non-renewable resource generated and deposited under special biological and geological conditions.

Until now these believers in "abiotic oil" have been dismissed as professing "bad science" but -- alas -- a new study has proven them correct!

Reported in ScienceDaily, researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm have managed to prove that fossils from animals and plants are not necessary for crude oil and natural gas to be generated. The findings are revolutionary since this means, on the one hand, that it will be much easier to find these sources of energy and, on the other hand, that they can be found all over the globe.

"Using our research we can even say where oil could be found in Sweden," says Vladimir Kutcherov, a professor at the Division of Energy Technology at KTH.

Together with two research colleagues, Vladimir Kutcherov has simulated the process involving pressure and heat that occurs naturally in the inner layers of the earth, the process that generates hydrocarbon, the primary component in oil and natural gas.

According to Vladimir Kutcherov, the findings are a clear indication that the oil supply is not about to end, which researchers and experts in the field have long feared.


Abiotic Oil
The abiotic oil formation theory suggests that crude oil is the result of naturally occurring and possibly ongoing geological processes. This theory was developed in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, as the Union needed to be self sufficient in terms of producing its own energy. The science behind the theory is sound and is based on experimental evidence in both the laboratory and in the field. This theory has helped to identify and therefore develop large numbers of gas and oil deposits. Examples of such fields are the South Khylchuyu field and the controversial Sakhalin II field.
In its simplest form, the theory is that carbon present in the magma beneath the crust reacts with hydrogen to form methane as well as a raft of other mainly alkane hydrocarbons. The reactions are more complicated than this, with several intermediate stages. Particular mineral rocks such as granite and other silicon based rocks act as catalysts, which speed up the reaction without actually becoming involved or consumed in the process.
Experiments have shown that under extreme conditions of heat and pressure it is possible to convert iron oxide, calcium carbonate and water into methane, with hydrocarbons containing up to 10 carbon atoms being produced by Russian scientists last century and confirmed in recent US experiments. The absence of large quantities of free gaseous oxygen in the magma prevents the hydrocarbons from burning and therefore forming the lower energy state molecule carbon dioxide. The conditions present in the Earth's mantle would easily be sufficient for these small hydrocarbon chains to polymerise into the longer chain molecules found in crude oil.

Vladimir Kutcherov adds that there is no way that fossil oil, with the help of gravity or other forces, could have seeped down to a depth of 10.5 kilometers in the state of Texas, for example, which is rich in oil deposits. As Vladimir Kutcherov sees it, this is further proof, alongside his own research findings, of the genesis of these energy sources -- that they can be created in other ways than via fossils. This has long been a matter of lively discussion among scientists.

"There is no doubt that our research proves that crude oil and natural gas are generated without the involvement of fossils. All types of bedrock can serve as reservoirs of oil," says Vladimir Kutcherov, who adds that this is true of land areas that have not yet been prospected for these energy sources.

But the discovery has more benefits. The degree of accuracy in finding oil is enhanced dramatically -- from 20 to 70 percent. Since drilling for oil and natural gas is a very expensive process, the cost picture will be radically altered for petroleum companies, and in the end probably for consumers as well.

"The savings will be in the many billions," says Vladimir Kutcherov.

To identify where it is worthwhile to drill for natural gas and oil, Vladimir Kutcherov has used his research to arrive at a new method. It involves dividing the globe into a finely meshed grid. The grid corresponds to fissures, so-called 'migration channels,' through underlying layers under the surface of the earth. Wherever these fissures meet, it is suitable to drill.

According to Vladimir Kutcherov, these research findings are extremely important, not least as 61 percent of theworld's energy consumption derives from crude oil and natural gas.

The next step in this research work will involve more experiments, but above all refining the method will make it easier to find places where it is suitable to drill for oil and natural gas.

Vladimir Kutcherov, Anton Kolesnikov, and Alexander Goncharov's research work was recently published in the scientific journal Nature Geoscience.


Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions
Anton Kolesnikov1,2, Vladimir G. Kutcherov2,3 & Alexander F. Goncharov1
Abstract
There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes1, 2, 3. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves4, 5. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.
Other relevant studies:


1. Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, District of Columbia 20015, USA
2. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, 117571 Moscow, Russia
3. Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

Wednesday, September 5, 2012

'The Sound of Extinction: Bernie Krause's Biophony'

The Sound of Extinction: Bernie Krause’s biophony

Musician, author and naturalist Bernie Krause has dedicated more than 40 years of his life recording the sounds of over 15,000 species around the world. His term for the sounds of all living organisms in the world’s habitat is “biophony.” Wondering how exactly he records nature’s biophony? According to The Independent:

"He found it through technology, though, communing with nature via headphones. This allows him to hear all the sounds together, instead of picking out individual sonic figures from the acoustic background. Perhaps artificial mediation makes it easier to get away from what is, after all, a perfectly natural way to organise incoming signals into patterns.
As he explored soundscapes around the world, he became a sonic ecologist. Recordings revealed that human disturbance could leave an environment acoustically degraded even though the place might look as though it had recovered – ironically, the evidence emerges when sounds are represented in visual form, as sonograms. Disturbance disorganises soundscapes, their patterns breaking down."
One of the advantages of having such a large archive of recordings is that Krause can notice deviations in the environment (and the species living in a habitat) from sound alone. Krause, who has been recording the sounds in nature since 1968, has acknowledged that 50 percent of his archive are no longer acoustically viable in a natural state.
He writes in a new book, The Great Animal Orchestra, about the sound of extinction:
"A great silence is spreading over the natural world even as the sound of man is becoming deafening. Little by little the vast orchestra of life, the chorus of the natural world, is in the process of being quietened. There has been a massive decrease in the density and diversity of key vocal creatures, both large and small. The sense of desolation extends beyond mere silence.
If you listen to a damaged soundscape … the community [of life] has been altered, and organisms have been destroyed, lost their habitat or been left to re-establish their places in the spectrum. As a result, some voices are gone entirely, while others aggressively compete to establish a new place in the increasingly disjointed chorus."
A classic example of the sound of extinction, as recorded and noticed by Krause, comes from the reefs in Fiji. The Guardian shares that in “the pristine coral reef waters of Fiji, [Krause] picks up a raucous mix of sighs, beats, glissandos, cries, groans, tones, grunts, beats and clicks,” but a mere half a mile away where the ”reef is badly damaged, [Krause] can only pick up the sound of waves and a few snapping shrimp.” This phenomenon of silence from extinction is not only found in the reefs–Krause has found similar deviations in in the Sierra Nevada mountains, amongst other place.
In fact, there are very few places in the world that are untainted by human interference and maintain natural sound. These rare, untouched regions include the Alaskan wilderness, the far Canadian north, Siberia, the pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, and the Brazilian Pantanal.